Physical Preparation for Birth

A recent research article on birth positioning [1] and a policy paper on reducing interventions in labor [2] reinforced my thinking that how we prepare women for labor and birth needs updating. As we learn more and more about the physiology of labor and birth [3], we are learning which practices are productive for a healthy birth and which practices work against birth.

Augmenting our knowledge and skills, as well as encouraging exercise components that improve outcomes truly prepare women for the intense challenges of giving birth. So here are some up and coming tips:

Hands and knees is mechanically efficient for mom’s body to “cradle” the fetus.

Why is this pregnant woman on her hands and knees?

Hands & knees can help low back pain in pregnancy & labor. It also reduces risk of injury to the pelvic floor during birth [1].

This position innervates transverse abdominal support of the abdomen. It opens SI joint via knee press effect. Practicing breathing, pelvic tilts, and modified planks in this position improves hands and knees endurance.

Why are these pregnant women squatting with partner support?

The most common reason given for practicing squats is that this action “opens the pelvic outlet.” This is true. But knowing how valuable kinesthesia is in executing challenging actions, I find that I must first teach women (and their partners) to sense where the target outlet is – between the sitsbones! This helps them learn to release the pelvic floor muscles and know where to focus their pushing efforts.

Also, having the support partner understand what is happening, as well as learning to support this action, is equally valuable to mom. It creates an important bonding and trusting activity. Explaining, illustrating with charts, and then teaching the ability to release, then bulge or distend the pelvic floor in the target area turns out to be one of the activities for which both partners are most grateful.

Why is this woman taking big strides and really moving out?

Aerobic fitness helps provide endurance in labor

Moving is a complicated neurological phenomenon and requires large afferent fiber pathways. The gate-control theory of pain states that movement deters other sensations that must travel up smaller pathways to reach our attention. Example: When you hit your elbow funny bone, you are likely to move around and rub the area, NOT sit and focus on the discomfort.

Labor is an endurance event, so if a mom is going to use movement (and gravity – another big helper) for 10 or 12 hours in labor, endurance fitness is a key preparation. Whether she jogs, swims, spins or dances, cardiovascular activity is possibly the most valuable exercise component she can acquire.

Some Quick Tips, based on recent research:

  • Encourage moms in early labor to stay out of the hospital as long as they can, unless they are given a significant medical reason to go in by their care provider. Once in the hospital, try to minimize the procedures that she must undergo [2]. The hospital or birthing center where she gives birth can, itself, be a factor in how she births [4].
  • If this is a healthy pregnancy, encourage her to eat in early labor and maintain her fluid intake throughout labor [5]. Endurance drinks can be useful to help maintain electrolyte balance during this long event.
  • Let her know she can ask to have hands-on support of her pelvic floor as the baby descends in pushing. Have her discuss this ahead of time with her care provider. This is another method that has been shown to reduce injury [6].
  • She can also ask to “labor down” rather than push for a few contractions after she is fully dilated, if she feels she needs to regroup once the head is through the cervix [7].
  • A good resource for positioning for birth and for recovery exercise is a Physical Therapist who has a PT certification in women’s health. For more information, go to PTPN.com or their Physiquality Blog.

REFERENCES

These references are worthy reading on our changing concepts of pregnancy, labor and birth practice. All of us who work with pregnant women are important influences in helping them gain skills and confidence to cope with this intensely physical, challenging experience.

  1. Zhang H et al. A randomised controlled trial in comparing maternal and neonatal outcomes between hands-and-knees delivery position and supine position in China. Midwifery July 2017 50:117-124. http://www.midwiferyjournal.com/article/S0266-6138(17)30236-X/abstract
  2. ACOG. Approaches to Limit Intervention During Labor and Birth. Committee Opinion Number 687, February 2017. http://www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Approaches-to-Limit-Intervention-During-Labor-and-Birth
  3. Buckley SJ. Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care. Childbirth Connection, 2015. PDF: http://www.nationalpartnership.org/research-library/maternal-health/hormonal-physiology-of-childbearing.pdf
  4. Shah NT. System Complexity and the Challenge of Too Much Medicine, Annual Meeting ACOG 2017. http://annualmeeting.acog.org/growing-c-section-rates-can-be-mitigated-by-counteracting-hospital-complexities/#.WRCbmxRaHFK
  5. ASA Press Release. Most healthy women would benefit from light meal during labor. Nov. 6, 2015. http://www.asahq.org/about-asa/newsroom/news-releases/2015/10/eating-a-light-meal-during-labor
  6. Leenskjold S, Hoi L, Pirhonen J. Manual protection of the perineum reduces the risk of obstetric anal sphincter ruptures. Dan Med J May 2015; 62(5). pii: A5075. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Leenskjold+S%2C+Hoi+L%2C+Pirhonen+J.+Manual+protection+of+the+perineum
  7. Brancato (Ozovek) RM, Church S, Stone PW. A Meta-analysis of passive descent versus immediate pushing in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia in the second stage of labor, JOGNN 2008; 37(1):4-12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Brancato+RM+A+Meta-analysis+of+passive+descent
Advertisements

Dispelling Myths on Pregnancy Exercise

At regular intervals, it becomes necessary to dispel two persistent myths that are often perpetuated by well-meaning care providers. Both of them were debunked long ago, in research literature that is readily available and about which I have written a great deal, including in my chapters on Women and Exercise (editions 3 & 4) and Health Promotion in Varney’s Midwifery (edition 5), in posts on the DTP website, on my Twitter feed (@anncowlin), on DTP’s Facebook page and in a textbook.

DTP_mover1_pregnantThe more common myth is that pregnant women should never let their pulse get over 140 beats per minute. But, more on that one at another time. That was an ACOG guess in 1985 that long ago (1994) was rescinded.

The other is that pregnant women should never begin a new exercise regimen, but only modify (i.e., reduce) what they are already doing. What brings me to write this blog after a blog break (to respond to our expanding pre/postnatal fitness teacher training program) is that this evening I was told the latter myth was promoted by a CNM at a recent nearby conference. A childbirth education colleague alerted me to this occurrence and also to the happy response by an unknown person in the audience, who chose to differ with the midwife, citing Dancing Thru Pregnancy® as her example!! Thank you to this responder.

Let me address – yet again – the issue of whether it is safe for pregnant women to begin an exercise regimen after they become pregnant. The caveat I offer at the outset is that doing so should be under the supervision of a knowledgeable certified pre/postnatal fitness specialist. Within the profession, the resolution of this question is generally agreed to be the Cochrane Review conducted in 2002, which found that aerobic fitness can be improved or maintained in pregnancy. Improvement requires increasing the level of aerobic challenge. More recently, researchers concluded “….pregnant women benefit from regular physical activity the same way as non pregnant subjects…” and that “…[t]he adoption or continuation of a sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy may contribute to the development of certain disorders such as hypertension, maternal and childhood obesity, gestational diabetes, dyspnoea, and pre-eclampsia.” (Melzer et al. Physical activity and pregnancy: cardiovascular adaptations, recommendations and pregnancy outcomes. Sports Med. 2010 Jun 1;40(6):493-507. 

Put another way, the female is not put together to be sedentary in pregnancy. It is only in recent decades that this is an option. Until the mid 20th Century, activities of daily living required physical fitness, and obesity was rare, along with sedentary behavior. In the last few decades, those who are knowledgeable about the interactions of pregnancy and exercise, and who have the experience of teaching movement to this population, have come to understand how to present activities that improve the factors that improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

Those who are extremely well-versed in the field all agree that cardiovascular (aerobic) fitness during the 6 – 12 month pre-pregnancy period may be the greatest pregnancy enhancement a woman can have. Why? Because endothelial function is greatly enhanced, oxidative stress is reduced, and vascularity is increased by aerobic fitness, and these capacities underly healthy implantation and placental development (see Research Updates 2001-2005, Winter 2005 and Winter 2004 and Update on Immune Function). Barring that, beginning early in pregnancy is helpful because placental development is still underway. Barring that, mild to moderate aerobic activity introduced by 25-30 weeks will produce cardiovascular enhancement by the time of labor. My caveat goes here, too.

All conditions mediated by inflammation are a problem in pregnancy. Physical fitness is a major preventive strategy for inflammation, and pregnancy does not stand in the way.