Pregnancy Pathway, Outcome – Mom & Baby Health Status

This 2/1/2010 entry seems to draw attention consistently, so we decided it was worth re-posting it. The discussion concerns determinants of the health outcome for mom & baby in the Pregnancy Pathway. It reviews the pathway, and then continues to the last stage of the Pathway, the health outcome. Here’s the whole graphic:

So, the big question is: How can we predict the health outcome of mom and baby, given all the variables of preconception, conception, pregnancy, labor and birth?

Well, there are some things for which we can predict or estimate risk/benefit ratios, and there are some for which we cannot. Let’s start by going over the major things that are not very predictable. At the moment, genetics is pretty much unpredictable. Down the road…maybe…but for now, not so much. Some IVF labs claim they can slightly slightly increase the odds for one sex or the other.

Post-conception, chorionic villi sampling and amniocentesis are methods by which the genetic make-up of the fetus can be identified. These are done mainly to give parents a choice about continuing a pregnancy if there is a question about genetically transmitted disorders or conditions, such as Down Syndrome. But, for now, the best way to manipulate the genetic odds of health outcome for your offspring is to mate with someone who is healthy and has health-prone genes!

Once you are pregnant, it is clear that prenatal health care, exercise, healthy nutrition, stress management and adequate sleep play significant roles in increasing the potential for a healthy outcome for mother AND baby. In fact, not only short term, but also long term healthy outcomes are linked to these factors. These are factors within our control.

Risk factors – most of which are within in our control – that can adversely affect outcomes include environmental toxins, risky behaviors (unsafe sex, drinking, smoking or drugs), poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, stress and isolation (lack of social support). These risks, as well as the benefits, are all discussed in the previous posts.

At this point, it is important to note that there is a lot that goes into making a healthy pregnancy, birth and outcome that is within the control of the mother, providing she has family and/or social support to take good care of herself.

The labor process and birth mode can also affect health outcome, but in general the effect is short-lived. For moms who have received regular care and are in excellent health, the occurrence of a truly devastating birth outcome for mother and/or baby is extremely rare. The exception may be mental or emotional turmoil that can accompany a difficult, unexpected and uncomfortable situation, such as an unplanned cesarean birth.

 

Group exercise programs are a source of social support.

Three interesting research outcomes point to the importance of exercise groups. One is that exercise can help prevent some disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. Second is that the health benefits of exercising during pregnancy and the postpartum period are beneficial for both short and long term for mother and infant. Disorders of pregnancy are risk factors for future cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Third is that exercise is most likely to occur when there is good social support.

Moving together is a “muscle bonding” experience that helps bind moms-to-be and new moms into a community of support. Within the group, moms can get help with tips for healthy eating and living, along with the support of others who know what she is experiencing. There are a lot of ways to get adequate exercise. When you are pregnant or a new mom, an exercise group can be one critical path to health and well-being.

Pregnancy Pathway, Preconditions – Genetics

Please refer to February 5 entry for complete graphic. The Precondition we will discuss today is Genetics.

bubblus_preconditions_-_genetics

There are genetic factors totally outside your control that determine things as simple as your offspring’s hair or eye color, how the earlobe attaches to the side of the head and whether or not s/he can roll the tongue. More complex things, such as a predisposition to types of cancers, bleeding disorders or various other diseases, also have a genetic basis.

Because the male contributes the sex of the offspring, once conception happens, the sex off the fetus is determined — at least genetically. But, it turns out not everything genetic is set in stone. In utero, hormone exposures may affect how male and female characteristics develop, so that some girls will be very girlie, some will be tomboys, and some may be gay. A similar effect will influence how boys develop.

Genetic, environmental and behavioral preconditions can be  intertwined. Environmental factors can alter genes, causing them to express proteins that would otherwise be dormant. Likewise, our behavior affects some of our genes. If we have a family propensity for heart disease, but we eat a healthy diet, exercise and avoid risky behaviors, we alter the impact of our genetic code.

Keep in mind that some things will be completely determined by genes. It is not reasonable to hope, for example, that our offspring will be 6’5″ if both parents are short (or vice versa). If the mother has “thrifty genes” — that is, genes that make it easy for her to gain weight — she may well do so during pregnancy, even if she follows a reasonably healthy lifestyle. If the immune systems of both parents have some similarities, it may affect the maternal immune response to the implanting trophoblast cells, thus affecting the placenta and, indeed, the entire pregnancy.

So, how do we advise people who are thinking of pregnancy to prepare themselves for a healthy pregnancy genetically? Surely, to determine all the potential genetic possibilities is not feasible or affordable at this point. Maybe in another century! But, we can know some factors:  Is there sickle cell anemia in both families? Is there a Mediterranean type of sickle cell disorder? What about clotting factors or differences in Rh? What about diseases or disorders that are not common, like ALS? These are things that potential parents may want to discuss.

Like so much of life, we can’t know everything. There are no guarantees. There is a lot to be learned still about human genes and how they work.

This blog has at its heart the notion that physical activity has tremendous benefits for mother and offspring…and for partners, too. How does the genetic component affect this? First, preconception fitness lowers some risk factors for mothers and babies. Second, each mother’s genes will make it easier or more difficult for her to enjoy or benefit from the activity of exercise. We appreciate this and encourage young moms-to-be to find something enjoyable that you like doing and find people or situations that support you in being active now before you become pregnant.

If you need assistance or advice, please go to http://www.dancingthrupregnancy.com (use the BlogRoll)

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